Interdisciplinary Day: Friday March 22, 2019

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8:00 am - 9:30 am   CONCURRENT SESSIONS

Title: Replication, Reproducibility, and Research Accumulation in Developmental Science

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 310

Noel A. Card is Professor of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. His research focuses on both social development and developmental methodology.  Specifically, he has studied the development of aggression and peer victimization, dyadic relationship with peers, and character development, primarily during middle childhood through adolescence. He uses and studies various quantitative methodologies, including methods for longitudinal data, dyadic data, and meta-analysis.  He is former co-founder of the biennial Developmental Methods conference and is currently editor of the Journal of Research on Adolescence.

Abstract: Concerns about replication and the reproducibility of empirical findings have risen dramatically in psychology over the past decade.  It is reasonable to ask whether developmental science is similarly facing such a “replication crisis” and, if so, what should be done about it.  The first portion of this talk will review the concerns commonly raised in psychology and related disciplines, as well as recommendations put forth for encouraging replication, open science, and responsible data analysis practices.  The second portion of this talk will consider the unique position of developmental science, relative to the experimental subdisciplines of psychology that have predominated much of the discussion about replication.  Specifically, I will consider some of the challenges of replication and reproducibility with large, naturalistic, longitudinal studies, as well as the greater emphasis on contextual, developmental, and historic differences inherent in much of developmental research.  The third portion of this talk will propose a new paradigm, in which individual study results are deemphasized and accumulating streams of multiple study results are prioritized as sources of knowledge within developmental science.  Tools for facilitating this research accumulation will be described, as will challenges of this approach within our traditional approach conducting developmental science.

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Title: Life, Death, and Mental Health: How Access to Care Helps Children Succeed

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 307

Janet Currie is the Henry Putnam Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University and the Co-director of Princeton's Center for Health and Wellbeing. She also co-directs the Program on Families and Children at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She is the in-coming President of the American Society of Health Economics, has served as the Vice President of the American Economics Association, and is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and of the American Academy of Art and Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Society of Labor Economists, and of the Econometric Society, and has honorary degrees from the University of Lyon and the University of Zurich.  Dr. Currie is a pioneer in the economic analysis of child development. Her current research focuses on socioeconomic differences in health and access to health care, environmental threats to health, and the important role of mental health.

Abstract: The U.S. provides a case study of how increasing access to health care prenatally and in early childhood reduces deaths and leads to long-term improvements in child and young adult outcomes. While inequality in mortality increased in the U.S. among older adults, it declined among children and approached the low levels seen in countries such as Canada. Improved mental health appears to be an important mechanism, driving better outcomes in surviving children.

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10:00 am - 11:30 am   CONCURRENT SESSIONS

Title: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Strategic Plan

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 310

Diana W. Bianchi, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

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Title: Perry Preschoolers at 50

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 307

James J. Heckman is the Henry Shultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics and Public Policy and Director of the Center for the Economics of Human Development at the University of Chicago. He works to understand the origins of inequality, social mobility, and the formation of skills and regulation in labor markets. He also devises and applies empirical strategies to address these questions. Heckman has published over 300 articles and 9 books. Heckman has received the Nobel Prize in Economics, the John Bates Clark Medal, the Jacob Mincer Award, the Dennis Aigner Award, the Ulysses Medal, the Theodore W. Schultz Award, the Frisch Medal, the Dan David Prize, and is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association.

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11:30 am - 12:30 pm   TAD TALKS ON INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH (CONSECUTIVE)

Location: Baltimore Hilton, Level 2, Holiday Ballroom
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Topic: Infant cognition and the application of fNIRS to study at-risk populations

Sarah Lloyd-Fox, University of London

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Title: Slowing Down Youth Violence

Jens Ludwig, is the Edwin A. and Betty L. Bergman Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago’s Harris School of Public Policy, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, and co-director of the Urban Education Lab. He helped found the Crime Lab 10 years ago to work closely with state and local government agencies to identify more effective (and humane) ways to prevent crime and violence, to reduce the harms of the criminal justice system, and address closely-related social problems such as high school dropout. Crime Lab projects have been published in leading peer-reviewed outlets like the Quarterly Journal of Economics and Science, have helped inform policy decisions in cities like Chicago and New York, and have been featured in news stories by national outlets like the New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, NPR and PBS News Hour. Ludwig is a member of the editorial board of the American Economic Review, a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Neurobiological and Socio-behavioral Science of Adolescent Development and Its Applications, and an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Abstract: Violence is one of the leading causes of death to adolescents in the United States and a key driver of disparities in life expectancy, with important downstream implications for schooling, health and poverty. Violence is also a problem that has been quite persistent; while mortality rates from almost every leading cause of death have plummeted since 1950, the homicide rate today is similar to what it was 70 years ago. We typically think of major social problems that persist for decades as being quite difficult to solve. But in this talk Jens Ludwig of the University of Chicago argues that a growing body of research from behavioral science suggests we may be able to make remarkable progress in a remarkably simple way: By helping youth in key situations learn to stop, look and listen.

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Topic: Social neuroscience

Piotr Winkielman, University of California - San Diego

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1:00 pm - 2:30 pm   CONCURRENT SESSIONS

Title: Health Disparities in American Indian Families

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 307

Donald K. Warne, MD, MPH is the Associate Dean of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion as well as the Indians Into Medicine (INMED) Program Director, and Professor of Family and Community Medicine at the School of Medicine and Health Sciences at the University of North Dakota. He also serves as the Senior Policy Advisor to the Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board. Dr. Warne is a member of the Oglala Lakota tribe from Pine Ridge, SD and comes from a long line of traditional healers and medicine men. He received his MD from Stanford University School of Medicine and his MPH from Harvard School of Public Health. His work experience includes: several years as a primary care physician with the Gila River Health Care Corporation in Arizona; Staff Clinician with the National Institutes of Health; Indian Legal Program Faculty with the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law at Arizona State University; Health Policy Research Director for Inter Tribal Council of Arizona; Executive Director of the Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board; and Chair of the Department of Public Health at North Dakota State University. Twitter: @donaldwarnemd.

Professional activities include:

  • Member, National Board of Trustees, March of Dimes
  • Member, Health Disparities Subcommittee of the Advisory Committee to the Director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and
  • Member, Board of Directors, Public Health Foundation.

Abstract: American Indian populations are diverse and have a unique history and culture in the United States. Historical trauma that resulted from numerous federal policies have had a direct impact on the health of Indigenous Americans. In this discussion we will examine historical and cultural factors that have an impact on the health of American Indian families, and we will identify potential solutions toward achieving health equity.

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Title: Ethical Blindspots in Ethnographic and Developmental Approaches to the Language Gap Debate

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 310

Elinor Ochs is Distinguished Research Professor of Anthropology at UCLA. Drawing upon fieldwork in Madagascar, Samoa, Italy and the US, she documents durative and fluid dispositions and practices undergirding becoming competent speakers and actors across the lifespan, settings, and communities. Her research on language socialization, narrative, and emotion bridges linguistic, psychological, and medical anthropology. Ochs directed the UCLA Sloan Center on Everyday Lives of Families, which analyzed how social class configures communication, childcare, health, commensality, leisure, work, and consumerism. Selected honors include American Academy of Arts and Sciences Member, Guggenheim Fellow, MacArthur Fellow, Honorary Doctorate Linkoping University (Sweden), President of Society for Linguistic Anthropology, and President of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. Selected books include The Handbook of Language Socialization (2011), Life at Home in the 21st Century: 32 Families Open Their Doors (2012), and Fast Forward Family: Home, Work, and Relationships in Middle Class America (2013).

Abstract: As an anthropologist of communication in childhood, I argue that the Language Gap debate is mired in ethical blind spots across ethnographic and developmental approaches. These blind spots fuel disciplinary impasses to productive dialogue regarding global-local moral economies of talk and knowledge that infuse the lives of young children. All scholars in this debate fervently commit to reduction of economic inequality. Yet, they divide in ethical investments in human and cultural rights, universal and situated truths, objective and subjective knowledge, and neoliberal advocacy of the individual and social capitalist advocacy of government to achieve economic parity. Ethical fault lines blind scholars to how much they need one another’s invaluable expertise. Significantly, in light of postcolonialism, global uprisings, and critical social science since the 1960s, scholars for and against Language Gap interventions have lost sight of the ethical problematics of their own privileged positionality in representing what is best for Others.

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3:00 pm - 4:30 pm   CONCURRENT SESSIONS

Topic: Cognitive neuroscience of social cognition, theory of mind, and moral judgment

Location: Baltimore Convention Center, Room 307

Rebecca Saxe, the John W. Jarve (1978) Professor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences, is best known for her discovery of a brain region that is specialized for “theory of mind” tasks that involve understanding the mental states of other people. Although it was known previously that the brains of humans and animals have regions that are specialized for basic functions such as vision and motor control, this was the first example of a brain region specialized for constructing abstract thoughts. Saxe continues to study this region and its role in social cognition, and is exploring the theory-of-mind system as a promising candidate for understanding the biological basis of autism. Twitter: @rebecca_saxe.

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Title: Time Bomb: How the Western Conception of Intelligence is Taking Down Humanity

Location:  Baltimore Convention Center, Room 310

Robert Sternberg is Professor of Human Development at Cornell University and Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Heidelberg. His PhD is from Stanford and he holds 13 honorary doctorates. Sternberg formerly was IBM Professor of Psychology and Education and Director of the Center for Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise at Yale University. Sternberg has won both the William James and James McKeen Cattell Awards from the Association for Psychological Science and the Grawemeyer Award in Psychology. He is a past-president of the American Psychological Association and the Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Education and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Sternberg’s main interests are in intelligence, creativity, wisdom, love, and hate. Sternberg is the author of College Admissions for the 21st Century (Harvard University Press, 2010) and What Universities Can Be (Cornell University Press, 2016).

Abstract: In this talk, I will discuss the evolution of my thinking about intelligence. In the process, I will try to show how scientific thinking evolves over the course of a career, discarding or elaborating upon earlier ideas in favor of newer ones.  I will discuss, in turn, the componential theory of intelligence, the triarchic theory of intelligence, the theory of successful intelligence, the augmented theory of successful intelligence, and the new theory of intelligence serving as a mental immune system.  I will suggest that conventional views of intelligence have had a catastrophic effect on societies, resulting in the promotion of incompetent and often malign individuals into positions of leadership and authority, and leaving marginalized far more competent and benign people.  Societies may not have much time to change their practices.

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